A period of design during the reign of Napoleon I. It was most prevalent between 1800 and the late 1820s. It was considered the second wave of neoclassicism and marked a return to ostentatious design, a departure from the more conservative Directoire period that directly preceded it. It was intended to idealize the majesty of the French state and Napoleonic rule. Mahogany was the most popular wood during the period, and brass ornamentation and dark marbles were in vogue. Greek, Roman, and Egyptian motifs were also widely used. The style spread throughout Europe and appeared in America in some of Duncan Phyfe's work.